They are not "fictitious labels" they are a representation of the situation your hard disk is at the moment.
Depending on specifically which partitioning software you used and what exactly you did with it, it may be possible to:
- recover the previous partitioning and volumes/data in them as if nothing happened
- recover the data only (but all the data)
- recover the data only (and only partial data)
- recover nothing
The reference tool to analyze your situation is TESTDISK, that you may get here:
Do take some time on the basic instructions:
then run it , making sure to create the log, DO NOT change anything and post the log for review.
Besides the above, the more you remember about the previous partitioning scheme and you provide, the better.